It is important to memorize the above basic data and information about Land Usage Pattern in India. There can be direct question asking you to list out the land usage pattern in India. Sometimes they may ask related question where you can use this information to add value to your answers.
Name of Basin Ground Water Resources
Total Replenishable Utilisation (%)
Level of Groundwater
1. Brahmani with Baitarni
3. Chambal Composite
9. K and S Luni
10. Chennai and S. TN
14. Northeast Composite
18. Western Ghat
a. Watershed (check dam development)
Coal occurs in two stratigraphic horizons
Permian sediments (c. 290Ma) mostly deposited in Intra-cratonic Gondwana basins.Early Tertiary (c. 60Ma) near-shore peri-cratonic basins and shelves.
Coal deposits are primarily found in eastern and south-central India. Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra accounted for 98.26% of the total known coal reserves in India. As on 31 March 2018, Jharkhand and Odisha had the largest coal deposits of 26.06% and 24.86% respectively.
he following table shows the estimated coal reserves (In Billion Metric Tonnes) in India by state as on 31 March 2018.
The following table shows the estimated lignite reserves (Billion MT) in India by state as on 31 March 2018.
State Percentage Jharkhand 28% Odisha 25% Chhattisgarh 17% West Bengal 10%. M. Pradesh 7% An. Pradesh 7% Maharashtra 7% Others Remaining
Demand, production and import of coal (in million tonnes)
Major Coal-mining areas:
As per the present import policy, coal can be freely imported (under Open General Licence) by the consumers themselves considering their needs based on their commercial prudence.
Coking Coal is being imported by Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) and other Steel manufacturing units mainly to bridge the gap between the requirement and indigenous availability and to improve the quality of production.Coal based power plants, cement plants, captive power plants, sponge iron plants, industrial consumers and coal traders are importing non-coking coal.Coke is imported mainly by pig-Iron manufacturers and Iron & Steel sector consumers using mini-blast furnace.Details of import of coal and products i.e. coke during the last six years is as under:
Distribution of reserves by state/region
Strategic petroleum reserves
Building petroleum reserves like underground tank storage, above-ground tank storage, and fully developed and ready-to-exploit in situ reserves is a lucrative proposition for an oil-importing country like India as the oil exporters charge exorbitant prices when the oil demand is little more than supply. The Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is an emergency fuel store of total 5 million tonne or 31.5 million barrels (5.0 million cubic metres) of strategic crude oil enough to provide 10 days of consumption which are maintained by the Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Limited. Strategic crude oil storages are at 3 underground locations in Mangalore, Visakhapatnam and Padur with ready access to the refineries on the east and west coasts. Another method to build up strategic petroleum reserve at low cost is to develop a proven oil field for higher oil extraction rate and keeping it reserved for full production on an intermittent basis when the global oil price cross the set upper limit.
Two more SPRs will add strategic petroleum reserves of 12 days in addition to 10 days of reserves achieved in Phase I. These SPRs under Phase II will be located at Chandikhol in Odisha and Padur in Karnataka. Indian refiners maintain 65 days of crude storage, and when added to the SPR storage planned and achieved takes the Indian crude storage tally to 87 days. This is very close to the storage of 90 days mandated by IEA for member countries. The total storage figure is excluding the storage capacity of petroleum products with the marketing agencies and bulk consumers.
India is heavily dependent on crude oil and LNG imports with 82.8% import dependence for crude oil and 45.3% for natural gas/LNG. The net foreign exchange outgo is 63.305 billion US$ in the financial year 2017-18 on account of crude oil imports. India generated 35.2 million tons of petroleum products from indigenous crude oil production whereas the consumption of petroleum products is 204.9 million tons. Similarly India generated 31.7 bcm natural gas locally against the consumption of 58.1 bcm. LNG price is linked to the prevailing crude oil price in global markets.
India is the third biggest oil importer after US and China in 2018 and expected to occupy second place surpassing the US in 2019. In the year 2019, US is going to become net exporter of LNG, LPG, crude oil and its products from its shale oil production boom. Shale oil production cost would be the lower ceiling price for the crude oil in international trade as its substantial production is consumed internally in US.
Before 1960, petroleum oil was produced only in Assam. In 1960, for the very first time, an oil well was dug out of Assam state, in Ankaleshwar area in the state of Gujarat. The oil well was named as Vasudhara. India’s first offshore oil mining was done on Aliabet, an island 45km away from Bhavnagar in Gujarat, in the Gulf of Khambat. In 1975, oil was discovered in Bombay High and in the subsequent year, production was started.
Production of crude oil in India (in descending order)Maharashtra ( more than 60% of the production)Gujarat ( around 20% oil production)Assam ( around 15% oil production)Other states
Remember locations of Oil Refineries and Major Oil producing centers. Pipeline are the ones that connect these centers.
India is the third largest consumer of crude oil in the world, after the United States and China. The country accounted 4.81% of total world oil consumption in 2016-17. The estimated total consumption of crude oil in India rose from 160.77 MMT in 2008-09 to 251.93 MMT in 2017-18 with a CAGR of 4.59%. High speed diesel oil accounted for 39.3% of total consumption of all types of petroleum products in 2017-18, followed by petrol (12.7%), petroleum coke (12.4%), liquefied petroleum gas (11.3%), and naphtha (6.1%). The country accounted for 1.41% of total world natural gas consumption in 2016-17. The largest consumers of natural gas are the fertilizer industry (27.78%), power generation (22.77%), and the use of natural gas as a domestic fuel for transportation (16.25%). Natural gas is consumed for both energy (60.68%) and non-energy (39.32%) related uses.
Electricity generationCrude oil and natural gas are the second and third largest sources of electricity generated in India, after coal. Crude oil accounted for 10.34% and natural gas accounted for 8.7% of the total electricity produced in 2017-18. As on 23 October 2015, the installed capacity of gas-based power plants in India was 25,057.13 MW, accounting for 7.9% of the total installed capacity. Diesel is a minor source for electricity generation in India. The total installed capacity of diesel-based power plants in utility sector of India is 927.89 MW accounting for a mere 0.3% of total installed capacity.
India is the third largest oil importer after the United States and China and is highly dependent on imports of crude oil. The net imports of crude oil rose from 132.78 MTs during 2008-09 to 220.43 MTs during 2017-18. Despite the dependence on imports, India has developed sufficient processing capacity over the years to produce different petroleum products. As result, India is now a net exporter of petroleum products. The export of petroleum products increased from 38.94 MT in 2008-09 to 66.83 MT during 2017-18. The import of petroleum products was 35.46 MT in 2017-18, decreasing by 2.28% from the previous fiscal. The gross import of natural gas increased from 8.06 BCM in 2008-09 to 19.87 BCM in 2017-18, recording a CAGR of 9.44%.
India has an 82.8% import dependence for crude oil and 45.3% for natural gas/LNG. The net foreign exchange outgo is 63.305 billion US$ in the financial year 2017-18 on account of crude oil imports. India generated 35.2 million tons of petroleum products from indigenous crude oil production whereas the consumption of petroleum products is 204.9 million tons. Similarly India generated 31.7 bcm natural gas locally against the consumption of 58.1 bcm.
India was the third largest crude oil importer in the world in 2018. The country spent an estimated ₹8.81 lakh crore (US$120 billion) to import 228.6 million tonnes of crude oil in 2018-19. The following countries were the 15 largest sources of crude oil imports into India in 2018.
Uranium is a silvery-gray metallic radioactive chemical element. It is only naturally formed in supernova explosions.Uranium, thorium, and potassium are the main elements contributing to natural terrestrial radioactivity.Uranium has the chemical symbol U and atomic number 92.Uranium isotopes in natural uranium are 238U (99.27%) and 235U (0.72%).All uranium isotopes are radioactive and fissionable. But only 235U is fissile (will support a neutron-mediated chain reaction).Traces of Uranium are found everywhere. Commercial extraction is possible only in locations where the proportion of Uranium is adequate. There are very few such locations.
Largest viable deposits are found in Australia, Kazakhstan, and Canada.Olympic Dam and the Ranger mine in Southern Australia are important mines in Australia.High-grade deposits are only found in the Athabasca Basin region of Canada.Cigar Lake, McArthur River basin in Canada are other important uranium mining sites.The Chu-Sarysu basin in central Kazakhstan alone accounts for over half of the country’s known uranium resources.
India has no significant reserves of Uranium. All needs are met through imports.India imports thousands of tonnes of uranium from Russia, Kazakhstan, France, andIndia is trying hard to import uranium from Australia and Canada. There are some concerns regarding nuclear proliferation and other related issues which India is trying to sort out.
Mines in India
JadugudaIt is the first uranium mine of India which started its operations in 1967. This mine is located in the state of Jharkhand. Jadugoda process plant is located close to the mine which is used for the processing of the uranium ore. The ore from Bhatin and Narwapahar mines is also processed here.
BhatinThis mine is located 3 km away from Jaduguda and shares most of the infrastructure with the Jaduguda mine.
NarwapaharThis mine was commissioned in April 1995. It is known to be the most modern mine of the country.
TuramdihTuramdih mine is located 24 km to the west of Jaduguda and five km south to Tatanagar railway station which is on howrah Mumbai main line. It was commissioned in 2003. Turamdih Processing Plant has been set up to treat the ore from Turamdih, Banduharang and Mohuldin mines.
BagjataBagjata Mines is an underground mine in east singhbhum district of Jharkhand.
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Which one of the following types of coal contains a higher percentage of carbon than the rest?  (a) Bituminous coal(b)Lignite (c)Peat (d)Anthracite Ans (d)Anthracite is a dense, shiny coal that has a high carbon content. Very little volatile matter is present in it. It gives a clean flame while burning. Anthracite contains 91% of carbon; is very little volatile and has almost smokeless burning. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Consider the following statements: 1.Petronet LNG Ltd. is setting up another LNG terminal at Mangalore. 2.The Head Office of the Dredging Corporation of India is at Vishakhapatnam. 3.The Narwapahar Mine is operated by the Uranium Corporation of India Limited. Which of the statements given above are correct? (a)1, 2 and 3 (b)1 and 2 only (c)2 and 3 only (d)1 and 3 onlyAns.(c)
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] In which one of the following states are Namchik Namphuk coalfields located? (a)Arunachal Pradesh (b)Meghalaya (c)Manipur (d)MizoramAns.(a)Namchik-Namphuk coalfields are located in Arunachal Pradesh. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Consider the following statements: 1.India does not have any deposits of Thorium. 2.Kerala’s monazite sands contains Uranium. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a)1 only (b)2 only (c)Both 1 and 2 (d)Neither 1 nor 2Ans.(d)India has 12% of thorium deposits of the world. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Consider the following statements:[2013 – I] 1.Natural gas occurs in the Gondwana beds. 2.Mica occurs in abundance in Kodarma. 3.Dharwars are famous for petroleum. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a)1 and 2 (b)2 only (c)2 and 3 (d)NoneAns.(b)Dharwar rocks are non fossilliferous rather they are metalliferous. They bear out gold, iron ore, manganese mica, cobalt, chromium, copper, tungsten, lead, nickel, precious stones and budding stones. Kodarma is a store house of mica and Gondwana beds has coal and not natural gass. [/tippy]
On the basis of chemical and physical properties, minerals may be grouped under two main categories of metallics and non-metallics which may further be classified as follows:
Minerals have certain characteristics.
Overall, India is a hotspot of the following mineral reserves:
During 2017-18, mineral production was reported from 32 States/Union Territories (actual reporting of MCDR from 22 states and estimation of minor minerals for all 32 States/Union Territories) of which the bulk of value of mineral production (excluding fuel and atomic minerals) of about 93.65% was confined to 10 States. Rajasthan is in leading position, in terms of estimated value of mineral production in the country and had the share of 20.26% in the national output.Odisha share of 17.77% followed by Andhra Pradesh (9.45%), Chhattisgarh (8.80%), Karnataka (7.83%), Telangana (6.06%), Gujarat (5.66%), U. P. (4.98%), Maharashtra. (4.67%) Bihar (3.77%) in the total value of mineral production.
Metallic minerals are the minerals which contain one or more metallic elements. They occur in rare, naturally formed concentrations known as mineral deposits. Metallic minerals available from India are zinc, iron ore, manganese ore, gold, bauxite, silver, lead, tin, copper and chromite.
6.1 Iron Ore
India stands first in iron ore reserves in Asia. Iron ore is mainly distributed in the peninsular India.
Varieties of Iron Ore:
Significance of Mica
Distribution of Mica in India 📌 15
Bihar (Gaya), Jharkhand (Hazaribagh), Rajasthan (Ajmer, Shahpur, Tonk, Bhilwara, Jaipur), Andhra Pradesh (Nellore)
State wise total resource distribution of Mica is as follows:-
State wise total resource distribution of limestone is as following:-
Uranium and Thorium are the main atomic minerals. Other atomic minerals are beryllium, lithium and zirconium.
8.1 Uranium 📌 16
Uranium deposits occur in Singhbhum and Hazaribagh districts of Jharkhand, Gaya district of Bihar, and in the sedimentary rocks in Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh. Some uranium is found in the copper mines of Udaipur in Rajasthan. India produces about 2 per cent of world’s uranium. The total reserves of uranium are estimated at 30,480 tonnes.
The known reserves of thorium in India are estimated to be between 457,000 and 508,000 tonnes. Kerala, Jharkhand, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan are the main producers. Thorium is predicted to be able to replace uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, but only a few thorium reactors have yet been completed.
The entry at serial No. 23 of List II (State List) to the Constitution of India mandates the state government to own the minerals located within their boundaries,The entry at serial No. 54 of List I (Central List) mandates the central government to own the minerals within the exclusive economic zone of India (EEZ). In pursuance to this Mines & Minerals (Development and Regulation) (MMDR) Act of 1957 was framed.International Seabed Authority (ISA) regulates mineral exploration and extraction. It is guided by the UN treaty and India being a party to the treaty has received an exclusive right to explore polymetallic nodules over 75000 sq. km in Central Indian Ocean Basin.The MMDR Amendment Act of 2015 introduces Mineral Concessions Grant through auctions to bring transparency and remove discretion; The District Mineral Foundation (DMF) to address the longtime grievance of the people affected by mining; and the National Mineral Exploration Trust (NMET) for incentivising regional and detailed exploration to fill the gaps in exploration in the country, and stringent measures to check illegal mining.
The New National Mineral Policy (NMP, 2019) will ensure more effective regulation in the sector. It will lead to sustainable mining sector development in future while addressing the issues of project affected persons especially those residing in tribal areas.
The aim of NMP 2019 is to have a more effective, meaningful and implementable policy that brings in further transparency, better regulation and enforcement, balanced social and economic growth as well as sustainable mining practices.
Key Proposals of the Policy
Significance of NMP, 2019
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Which one of the following countries has replaced Italy as the major importer of bauxite from India?  (a)Canada (b)Greece (c)Ukraine (d)United Arab EmiratesAns.(a)Canada is the largest importer of bauxite from India. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Match List-I (Ores) with List-II (States where they are mined) and select the correct answer: List-IList-II A.Manganese1.Madhya Pradesh B.Nickel2.Orissa C.Lead-zinc3.RajasthanD.Asbestos4.Andhra Pradesh Codes: (a) A – 1; B – 3; C – 3; D – 4 (b)A – 4; B – 3; C – 2; D – 1 (c)A – 1; B – 2; C – 3; D – 4 (d)A – 4; B – 2; C – 3; D – 1 Ans.(c)The state which produce maximum amount of metal ores are : Ores State A.Manganese1.Madhya Pradesh B.Nickel2.Orissa C.Lead-Zinc3.Rajasthan D.Asbestos4.Andhra Pradesh [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Match List-I (Minerals) with List-II (Location) and select the correct answer using the codes given below: List-IList-II A.Coal1.Giridih B.Copper 2.Jayamkondam C.Manganese3.Alwar D. Lignite4.DharwarCodes: (a)A-1; B-4; C-3; D-2 (b)A-2; B-3; C-4; D-1 (c)A-1; B-3; C-4; D-2 (d)A-2; B-4; C-3; D-1 Ans.(c)MineralsLocation A.Coal1.Giridih B.Copper3.Alwar C.Manganese4.Dharwar D.Lignite2.Jayamkondam [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] In which one of the following districts, have large reserves of diamond-bearing Kimberlite been discovered in the recent past? (a)Hoshangabad (b)Raipur (c)Sambalpur (d)WarangalAns.(b)Payali and Behradein in Raipur, Chhattisgarh has large reserves of diamond bearing kimberlite. It has 28% of the total diamond reserve of India. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Consider the following statements: 1.Balaghat is known for its diamond mines. 2.Majhgawan is known for its manganese deposits. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a)1 only (b)2 only (c)Both 1 and 2 (d)Neither 1 nor 2Ans.(d)Balaghat of Madhya Pradesh is known for its manganese mines. Majhgawan is famous for diamond. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] 155.Which of the following minerals found in a natural way in the state of Chhattisgarh? 1.Bauxite 2.Dolomite 3.Iron ore 4.Tin Select the correct answer using the code given below: Code: (a)1, 2 and 3 only (b)1 and 3 only (c)2 and 4 only (d)1, 2, 3 and 4Ans.(d)The minerals deposits in Chhatisgarh is Bauxite (96 million ton), Dolomite (606 million ton) and iron ore (2336 million ton). Tin is not found in Chhatisgarh. [/tippy]
99.7% (9 Jan 2019)
Share of fossil energy
Share of renewable energy
GHG emissions from electricity generation (2017)
Average electricity use (2017-18)
1,149 kWh per capita
Transmission & Distribution losses (2016-17)
21.42% & 24.20%
Industrial consumption (% of total, 2017-18)
Agriculture consumption (% of total, 2017-18)
Commercial consumption (% of total, 2017-18)
Traction consumption (% of total, 2017-18)
Share of private sector in generation
Coal: 205,344.5 MW (55.5%)Large Hydro: 45,699.22 MW (12.3%)Small Hydro: 4,683.16 MW (1.3%)Wind Power: 37,669.25 MW (10.2%)Solar Power: 34,405.67 MW (9.3%)Biomass: 10,001.11 MW (2.7%)Nuclear: 6,780 MW (1.8%)Gas: 24,955.36 MW (6.7%)Diesel: 509.71 MW (0.1%)
Total installed utility power capacity by sector and type
Per-Capita Electricity consumption (kWh) in 2016-2017
Growth of Installed Capacity in India
Installed capacity of non-conventional renewable power
Solar power generation (TWh)
Kamuthi Solar Power Project
Gujarat Solar Park-1
Welspun Solar MP project
ReNew Power, Nizamabad
Sakri solar plant
Installed capacity (MW)
Installed wind power capacity and generation in India
Total Capacity (MW)
Technology used for biomass based power generation
Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?  1.Idukki : Thermal power station 2.Sabarigiri : Hydro-electric project 3.Ghatprabha: Irrigation project 4.Ramganga: Multipurpose project (a)2, 3 and 4 (b)1, 2, 3 and 4 (c)3 and 4 (d)1 and 2 Ans.(a)Idukki is a hydro-electric project of Kerala. So, the ‘1’ option is not correct. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Consider the following statements regarding power sector in India: 1.The installed capacity of power generation is around 95000 MW 2.Nuclear plants contribute nearly 15% of total power generation 3.Hydroelectricity plants contribute nearly 40% of total power generation 4.Thermal plants at present account for nearly 80% of total power generation Which of the statements is/are correct? (a)1 only (b)2 and 3 (c)3 and 4 (d)1 and 4Ans.(a)According to the data of 2000, the power generation is 95000 MW. Nuclear plants contribute 2% of total power generation. Hydroelectricity plants contribute 25% of total production and 73% is contributed by thermal power plants. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Consider the following statements: 1.National Thermal Power Corporation has diversified into hydropower sector 2.Power Grid Corporation of India has diversified into telecom sector Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a)1 only (b)2 only (c)Both 1 and 2 (d)Neither 1 nor 2Ans (a)Statement ‘1’ is correct, because National Thermal Power Corporation has diversified into the hydro projects. Presently it has undertaken Koldem project in Himachal Pradesh. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Consider the following statements : 1.Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research uses fast reactor technology 2.Atomic Minerals Directorate for Research and Exploration is engaged in heavy water production 3.Indian Rare Earths Limited is engaged in manufacture of Zircon for India’s Nuclear Programme beside other rare earth products Which of the statements given above are correct? (a)1, 2 and 3 (b)1 and 2 (c)1 and 3 (d)2 and 3
Ans.(a)All the statements are correct according to Atomic developments in India. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists. List-I List-II (Atomic Power Plants(State) /Heavy Water Plants) A.Thal1.Andhra Pradesh B.Manuguru2.Gujarat C.Kakrapar3.Maharashtra D.Kaiga4.Rajasthan 5. Karnataka Codes : (a)A-2; B-1; C-4; D-5 (b)A-3; B-5; C-2; D-1 (c)A-2; B-5; C-4; D-1 (d)A-3; B-1; C-2; D-5Ans.(d)Atomic Power Plant State A.ThalMaharashtra B.ManuguruAndhra Pradesh C.KakraparGujarat D.KaigaKarnataka [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Match items in the List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists.  List-I (Power Station)List-II (State) A.Kothagudem1.Andhra Pradesh B.Raichur2.Gujarat C.Mettur3.Karnataka D.Wanakbori4.Tamil Nadu Codes : (a)A-4; B-2; C-1; D-3 (b)A-1; B-3; C-4; D-2 (c)A-4; B-3; C-1; D-2 (d)A-1; B-2; C-4; D-3Ans.(b)Power StationState A.Kothagudem:Andhra Pradesh B.Raichur:Karnataka C.Mettur:Tamil Nadu D.Wanakbori:Gujarat [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Consider the following statements: 1.Appellate Tribunal for electricity has been established by each state government in India. 2.One of the component of the Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (APDRP) is up gradation of sub-transmission and distribution system for electricity in India. Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? (a)1 only (b)2 only (c)Both l and 2 (d)Neither 1 nor 2Ans.(b)By virtue of section 110 of the Electricity Act 2003, an Appellate Tribunal for Electricity having jurisdiction throughout India has been set up to hear appeals or original petitions against the order of the Adjudicating officer. But in states like Delhi and Orissa electricity has been privatized. So, the statement ‘1’ is wrong. It is not present in Jammu and Kashmir. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Where are Tapovan and Vishnugarh hydroelectric project located? (a)Madhya Pradesh (b)Uttar Pradesh (c)Uttarakhand (d)RajasthanAns.(c)Tapovan and Vishnugarh hydroelectric project are located in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] The Dul Hasti Power Station is based on which one of the following rivers? (a)Beas (b)Chenab (c)Ravi (d)SutlejAns.(b)The Dul Hasti Power Station is on the Chenab river in Jammu and Kashmir. [/tippy]
[tippy title=“UPSC_Pre_MCQ” height=“300” width=“650”] Which of the following is/are the characteristic/characteristics of Indian coal?[2013 – I] 1.High ash content 2.Low sulphur content 3.Low ash fusion temperature Select the correct answer using the codes given below. (a)1 and 2 only (b)2 only (c)1 and 3 only (d)1, 2 and 3Ans.(a)Indian coal has high ash content and low calorific value. It has low sulphur and low phosphorous content but high ash fusion temperature. [/tippy]